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Okinawa Kamikaze story

Personal story of a Kamikaze…very interesting.

Pacific Paratrooper

This is an odd story that involves a flight instructor, his family, and a single-minded request. The whole thing was so strange, in fact, that the Japanese government censored it at the time.

Hajime Fujii was born on August 30, 1915, in Ibaraki Prefecture as the oldest of seven children. He joined the army and proved to be such a skilled machine gunner that they sent him to China.

The Chinese weren’t too happy about that, which is why Fujii got hit by a mortar shell that wounded his left hand. Sent to the hospital, he was tended to by Fukuko – a beautiful field nurse from Takasaki City, Gunma Prefecture.

It was love at first sight. Back then, arranged marriages were the norm, but the two were having none of it. So they returned to Japan, got married, and had two adorable daughters – Kazuko and Chieko.

Instead of…

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Killing the Custer Myth

On June 25th, 1876 George Armstrong Custer and 210 men of the 7th Cavalry were killed at The Battle of the Little Bighorn.

Custer and the battle took on mythic proportions due to the eastern press and the prejudices and racism of the times. Prejudices continue to this day although books have been written starting with Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee by Dee Brown (1970) that set the record straight.

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Killing Custer by James Welch (1994) is another book; written from the Indian point of view that seeks to set the record straight.

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My interest in the Indian Wars (1865-95) started when I was a child. I grew up with the John Wayne Western and in particular the John Ford Cavalry Trilogy consisting of Fort Apache, She Wore a Yellow Ribbon and Rio Grande.

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For a ten-year-old boy movies about the cavalry on the western plains was great stuff. Weather-beaten horse soldiers pursuing hostile Indians, rescuing white captives or holding the fort became play time themes with friends or with plastic Cowboys and Indians on the basement floor.

From there I graduated to the historian Robert Utley’s books on the Indian Wars and US Cavalry on the plains.  Over the years I’ve read Custer and Crazy Horse by Stephen Ambrose and numerous other books on the Indian Wars and The Battle of the Little Big Horn in particular.

It’s a historical sub-set that still interests me and finding Killing Custer in a used book store stoked my interest since it was obvious it was written from the Indian point of view.

It’s a different take in the sense of how Welch put it together.

Welch begins by telling the story of the Marias River Massacre. On January 23rd, 1870 Col. E.M. Baker (who was drunk) led four companies of cavalry and 55 mounted infantry on a surprise attack on a Pikuni ( Pigean Blackfeet) Indian camp by the Marias River in Montana.

The soldiers were looking for 25 Pikuni warriors who killed a white man named Malcom because the white man had accused their leader Owl Child of being a cowardly horse thief in front the tribe thus causing the man great shame. Malcom also allegedly raped Owl Child’s wife. The link above gives more detail but basically the Pikuni sought revenge for the continued insults and rape of Owl Child’s wife.

The soldiers were supposed to keep the peace and murder should be punished regardless of what Malcom did. The problem was the soldiers led by the drunken Baker came upon the wrong Pikuni camp which was identified as such by their half Pikuni scout.

https://youtu.be/jYVjnOA4LKk (Link to the Montana Historical Society presentation on the massacre.)

No matter declared Baker since Indians are all the same. Baker even threatened the scout lest the scout warn the innocent of the crime sleeping Indians. The soldiers surrounded the village and opened fire. Thousands of rounds of ammunition were fired into the tents of the sleeping Indians and when it was over 173 men, women and children had been massacred. (Some sources say over 200 were killed.)

Baker’s attitude was unfortunately common on the frontier and was often expressed as, “nits make lice.” The phrase simply reflects the notion that it was quite okay to kill children since they would not grow up to be warriors. The attitude was genocidal even while all the actions taken against the Indians were not executed to that extreme.

Ironically, Owl Child, the leader of the 25 warriors who killed the white man lay dying from small pox in another camp. Small pox killed more Indians than the soldiers ever did since they did not have any immunity from the horrible disease.

My first thought was what does this incident that I had never heard of in all my reading have to do with killing Custer and the Little Big Horn?

Welch makes two points about starting his narrative in such a way.

  1. Most everyone knows about the Little Big Horn and almost no one knows about the Marias River Massacre even though the numbers of dead are similar.
  2. Baker sunk into obscurity even though his superiors approved of the action. Custer, who led a similar winter surprise attack on the Southern Cheyenne at the massacre at the Washita River killed 103 Indians including many women and children became [again because of his Civil War record]  a national hero and famous Indian fighter.

Welch himself was half Blackfoot (d.2003) so the story was personal just as it provided a contrast to the Custer mythology and the reality of what really went on in the Indian Wars.

From there Welch lays out the story of the Sioux and Cheyenne who would eventually destroy Custer and most of the 7th Cavalry at The Battle of the Little Big Horn that also took place in Montana. He interjects his personal journey through out the book and that’s what makes the book different. In Killing Custer you get the facts told well from someone who simply wants the record set straight. I think he succeeds.

Since the publication of the book in 1994 the public attitude has certainly shifted because of books like Killing Custer and the fairer treatment of the Indians in movies (Little Big Man in the 70s and Dances with Wolves in the 90s and recently Hostiles while inaccurate in many ways do show Indians in a more favorable light.)

At one time the 7th Cavalry monument at the Custer Battlefield in Montana was dedicated only to the 210 soldiers who died there, “for their country.” Now the monument commemorates the Sioux and Cheyenne warriors who died there as well “for their country.” I think it’s quite fitting.

I can’t leave the subject of Custer without adding my two cents. My father who grew up with the myth far more than I was a huge fan of the boy general. He had a copy of the famous Budweiser painting hanging in our basement for many years. I inherited it after he died and had to throw it out since it was in terrible, worthless condition.

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Budweiser’s famous painting of Custer’s Last Stand. It hung in many a bar. My dad a reproduction in terrible condition.

Dad admired Custer primarily on Custer’s service in the Civil War where he led a Michigan Cavalry Brigade and later a division of cavalry under the aggressive Phil Sheridan in Sheridan’s devastating Shenandoah Valley Campaign of 1864.

There is no question of Custer’s bravery or his flamboyance. He was a fighter and it’s hard not to conclude that he enjoyed the glory that went along with his successes. In that he was not too different from other Union or Confederate officers.

What has always struck me is that Custer’s achievements in the Civil War were largely against a collapsing Confederacy who by late 1864 could not match the Union Cavalry any longer (having earlier in the war been much superior to the Union horsemen).

Other Union Cavalry commanders like Wesley Merrit achieved similar results if not more and did not get the recognition Custer received largely because of Custer’s press and flamboyance. In that, I think Custer was at least over rated in the Civil War and a disaster in the Indian Wars.

For example, at the Massacre at the Washita in 1868 Custer sent 19 men under Major Elliot to do an end around the sleepy Indian camp. The problem was Custer pressed on without any reconnaissance not knowing that the camp he attacked was only the first one in a string along the river.

Eliot, who had no clue was supposed to pursue the survivors from the first camp but instead ran into hundreds of other enraged Indians from the other camps. Eliot and all his men were killed and horribly mutilated. Custer to his shame never looked for them and they were found some time later. Custer claimed that he had to get back to the fort with his captives and besides there were too many other hostiles out there to deal with.

So, no reconnaissance and a callous disregard for the men in his command would ordinarily be unforgivable for an army officer.

On June 25th, 1876 Custer divided the 7th Cavalry into three detachments in an attempt to surround and attack from three directions the massive Indian camp on the Little Big Horn. The problem was he didn’t order a reconnaissance even though his Shoshone and Crow scouts told him that he faced a huge number of Sioux and Cheyenne warriors (about 2,000).

Custer valued surprise over accurate intelligence and charged ahead.  One of the other detachments got pinned down immediately and the third detachment joined the pinned down one rather than charge ahead and die with Custer.

All that to say Killing Custer is a good read and good be titled Killing the Custer Myth.

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Indian art depicting the aftermath of the Little Big Horn. Custer’s folly would be a good title.

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A Rapist and Murderer Hanged, 1937

This post is a little off my beaten path because it deals with crimes-murder and rape, to be more specific-the murder and rape of three little girls.

I recently purchased two 1937 copies of Life Magazine for $1.00 each. The purchase was a departure from my usual purchase of old magazines because 1937 was not of the World War Two war years of 1939-1945. But for a $1.00 each I could hardly go wrong.

While paging through both magazines I could not help to contrast the content between the 1937 editions of Life and the war years editions. It raised in my mind the observation that Life through its photo journalism specialty emphasized what was important to Americans at the time. The War in Europe would dominate from 1939 to 1945 but prior to those years and after Life was more domestic in outlook.

So here we are in 2014 and sadly we are getting used to mass murder and serial killers. In 1937 both seemed rare and so were big news. Below is the sad story of three little girls and an enraged community.

Below is the cover of of the July 19th, 1937 edition of Life. The picture is of a little black girl in Harlem cooling off in what was apparently a very hot summer.

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The picture that caught my eye and raised my curiosity is the one below.

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The first paragraph of the caption reads like this:

“This is the face of the worst kind of criminal-the kind whose acts turn civilized men and women into lynch mobs. It belongs to commonplace-looking men who move unmolested through the streets of U.S. cities. It reveals itself at last, in cellars and alleys and by lonely roads, to the most innocent and defenseless of humans. It is the face most hated and feared by police and parents throughout the world. It is the despoiler of children.”

The man’s name was Albert Dyer. Dyer was convicted late June, 1937 of raping and murdering  Madeline Everett, 7, her sister Melba, 9 and their playmate, Jeanette Stephens, 8. The crime occurred near Los Angeles.

According to  Murderpedia, the Encyclopedia of Murder, Dyer, who was employed as a WPA crossing guard and volunteer policeman lured the girls into an isolated ravine where he raped and killed each one. After the murders he ritually cleaned the bodies and prayed over them!

Dyer was an unlikely suspect because he was a WPA crossing guard and volunteer policeman. He was caught because after the bodies were discovered he showed up at the scene. His bizarre behavior at the scene of the crime made the police suspicious.

Part of the back story to the Dyer case was that in order to get Dyer to confess the police told him he could explain himself to the angry mob who wanted to lynch him. It would not work today but at the time it did and Dyer confessed.

As the grandfather of a five-year-old girl I could identify with the angry mob anxious for vigilante justice. Even today with our soft on crime mindset child molesters and child murderers are thought to be worst of the worst and worthy of only death.

Dyer was hanged at San Quentin Prison in 1938.

The link above at Murderpedia gives more detail as to what happened, Dyer’s statements at the time and much more background information.

Life Magazine noted this:

“In New York City arrests for sex crimes average one every six hours. Most offenders get off with fines or short jail terms, are then turned loose to commit new crimes. The only remedy for this alarming evil, say psychiatrists, is to make the punishment fit the crime but the criminal, to keep such men locked up for life, or until their abnormality has been cured.”

We live in a society and culture that seems to believe that mankind is getting better-more good, if you will. A child murderer like Dyer is deemed “sick” or as Life put it, “abnormal.” Far too easily we attribute “mental illness” to crime and in some cases, if not most it mitigates against a harsher punishment for just plain evil.

We are not getting better as these stats from FBI Crime Statistics show. An optimistic view of mankind is certainly not the Bible’s view of mankind’s sorry state.

Dyer was hanged as a deterrent for others who might be considering a heinous crime Some argue that the death penalty has not proven to be a deterrent and given the rising crime rates even in states that have the death penalty perhaps they are right.

One thing is certain-by hanging Dyer the State of California insured that he would not be raping and murdering any more little girls and that’s good enough for me.

 

 

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New Cars for 1940!

“Hitler sure made a mistake fighting us. Every kid from age 14 on knows how to drive a car or a truck. We are a nation on wheels!” (line in a movie from a US tank driver somewhere in France in 1944.)

As a kid I think I watched every World War 2 movie ever made (mostly produced in the 1950’s). Most were of the “B film” variety and had lame dialogue like the lines above that I vaguely remember.  The movies also conveyed the overall message that the USA pretty much won the war all by itself.

This of course was nonsense since Britain and the Commonwealth countries had been fighting against Germany and Italy since 1939-40 and the US didn’t get into the war until late 1941 when Japan attacked Pearl Harbor.

American automotive productive production not only put own armies on wheels but also the Soviet Union in the Lend-Lease program. Consider these production figures:

During WW2 the US produced 108,410 tanks and 2,382,311 other motor vehicles. The Soviet Union produced 106,025 tanks and 197,100 other motor vehicles.

Russia today downplays the Allied contribution to their war effort but the facts below speak for themselves (and these facts say nothing about the enormous number of tanks and motor vehicles supplied to Soviet Russia by Britain and Canada.)

The US sent to the Soviet Union during WW2 44,000 jeeps, 375, 883 trucks, 8,071 tractors and 12,700 tanks. (lend lease to the Soviet Union)

All of it came from the US automotive industry.

In 1940 the US was still at peace and the ads and stories in Life Magazine reflected the calm before the storm to come. On October 23, 1939 Life Magazine ran a huge story on the City of Detroit-headline and first page pictured below. Detroit in 1940 and for many years after was the US powerhouse for the manufacture of cars and trucks. This went virtually unchallenged until the 1970’s when Japanese imports began to make their appearance in American markets.

Nevertheless, in 1940 Detroit was the king city of the automobile industry and the ads below reflect perhaps the last opportunity Americans would have to purchase a new car (until 1946 when domestic production resumed). The ads are all from the October 23, 1939 issue of Life Magazine.

Detroit 1939

The caption reads, “The big men of Detroit” and lists who they are. One is the the CEO of Chrysler and another the CEO of General Motors. 

Plymouth 1940

The line on the bottom reads, “The Low-Priced Brand with the Luxury Ride.” A top of the line Plymouth in 1940 went for about $1,000.00.  According the National Archives the average yearly wage in 1940 was $1368.00.

Ford 1940

A top of the line Ford also went for around $1000.00 and on the low end you could get a Ford for a little under $700.00

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According to American Cars.com a 1940 DeSoto went for between $850.00 and $1000.00. DeSoto was a division of Chrysler and the brand disappeared by 1961. 

Studebaker 1940

Seeing Studebaker advertise a new car for $660.00 prompted me to try and find out what the others on this page went for. It seems that Studebaker was targeting the economy class with their two page ad that ran in October, 1939. My dad worked as an auto mechanic after he got out the Army in 1946. He loved the Studebakers and bought one in the early 1950’s. He was always sorry he sold it. 

 

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Life Advertisements, 1943

Below is a collection of World War Two ads from the same issue of Life Magazine, September 13, 1943. Most if not all US industries were on a war footing and produced equipment to be used in various weapon’s systems and support systems. The goal was to inform the public as to what they were doing to help win the war.

If you look carefully, some of the ads have a line encouraging the purchase of war-bonds. Warbonds was how the US financed the war. The idea was to by a bond at such and such a price that could be redeemed later as interest was accrued. If memory serves me I think there were 8-9 war-bond drives. A military hero was usually the main attraction at the public events.

I selected mostly large color adds that have a military connection.

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Here General Motors is advertising “nose cannons” using a real Army Air Force logo. The airplane looks like a drawing of a P-39 Airacobra. The nose cannon would have been a 37mm and the aircraft itself would have been used mostly for ground attack by 1943. Huge numbers of P-39s went to Soviet Russia as part of Lend-Lease.

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This is an ad for the famous Willy’s Jeep-an all purpose utility vehicle. From WikipediaWillys (English: /ˈwɪlɪs/ or /ˈwɪləs/[1]) was a brand name used by Willys-Overland Motors, an American automobile company best known for its design and production of military Jeeps (MBs) and civilian versions (CJs) during the 20th century. (I believe the word “Jeep” was derived from GP, the letters used to designate the vehicle in the first government contract. The company later merged with Kaiser, then American Motors and then Daimler Chrysler and then Fiat. The Jeep was the predecessor of the Humvee.

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The use of helicopters in WW2 was in its infancy. This ad must have seemed like Science Fiction in 1943.

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Prior to WW2 tanks communicated with each other by the commander standing in the hatch giving hand signals. The Russians used that system well into the war with only 1 in 10 tanks having a radio. American tanks each had one enabling communication with tank commanders at the platoon level-the level where tactics were the most important. Belmont Radio went out of business in 1952 and the radios are now collector’s items. The tank appears to be an M4 Sherman of which over 50,000 were built.

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I love the black and white artwork with this ad and had to use it. It features a “White M3 Halftrack” mounting a 75mm field gun. The field gun was used as a light howitzer and anti-tank weapon. The half-track was manufactured by White and Autocar was their halftrack division. Half-tracks were used primary as armored personnel carriers but also in a number of other roles serving as anti-aircraft platforms, mortar carriers and ambulances. American made half-tracks served in most allied armies in WW2 and survived in the Israeli Army well into the 1970’s. My dad worked for Autocar briefly after the war.

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World War Two like most wars brought technological improvements as each side tried to gain military advantage. The U-boat threat to allied shipping was very real and whole classes of warships were used to chase down the wolf-packs. This ad is all about improving speed and range with improved diesel engines. The ship is probably a destroyer-escort which was a smaller version of a destroyer and used primary to escort convoys. As a 17-year-old Sea Cadet I was able to take a short cruise on Lake Michigan on a WW2 vintage DE. The smell of diesel on the lake that day was overpowering as the ship pitched back and forth in a “mildly rough sea.”. Many a sailor (not me) lost their lunch over the side.

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Aluminum was a vital component in the manufacture of aircraft and Alcoa (still in business today) did their bit. According to the ad 95,000 people were employed by Alcoa in 1943. The artwork is interesting as it features a sergeant of the ground crew. Those were the guys that kept the airplanes patched up and flying. Pilots loved their ground crews for good reason since their lives depended on their mechanical skill. The airplane appears to be a B-24 Liberator Bomber. The B-24 is less well known than the B-17 Flying Fortress. He had a longer range than the B-24 but had many drawbacks. The Aviation Online Museum 

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H.M.S. Aboukir

Illustrated London News October 21, 1914

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The Illustrated London News, Oct.21st, 1914

Dead on the Filed of Honor: Naval and Military Officers who have been killed on active service

In the October 3, 1914 issue of my London Illustrated News there is a two page photograph record of the British Army and Navy officers killed in combat in the preceding month.

The second page is made up predominantly of naval officers. All are from three ships; the H.M.S. Aboukir, Hogue and Cressy. All three ships were armored cruisers of the Cressy class and were in Navy lingo, “sister ships.”

I discovered that the ships were sister ships when I searched for the H.M.S. Aboukir. I also discovered that all three ships were lost on the same day and were sunk by the same German submarine, the U-9 commanded, commanded by Kapitänleutnant Otto Weddigen. (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HMS_Aboukir_(1900)

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According to the Wikipedia article cited above the Aboukir was torpedoed first. The Hogue moved to the Aboukir’s aid and it to was torpedoed as it tried to rescue crewmen from the rapidly sinking Aboukir. The Hogue sank in ten minutes.

The Cressy attempted to ram the U-Boat but failed and it to was torpedoed and sank in thirty-five minutes.

Dutch and British fishing trawlers rescued a total of 837 men from the three ships. Sixty-two officers and 1, 397 enlisted men were lost. About a third were lost from the Aboukir which was torpedoed first.

Here is the list of officers pictured in the October 3, 1914 issue of The London Illustrated News.

H.M.S. Aboukir

Lieut-Com T. E. Harrison

Lieut B.H.M. Bradford

Lieut J.G Watson

Lieut O.W. Tottie

Engr-Com A.E. Everitt

Midshipman G.B. Barchard

Midshipman A.V.G. Allsop

H.M.S. Hogue

Lieut-Com H.E. DE P. Rennick

Lieut-CM C. Phillips-Wolley

Midshipman G.C. Harold

H.M.S. Cressy

Lieut-Com E. P. Gabbett

Lieut-Com B.M. Harvey

Lieut S. Wise

Lieut P.A. G. Kell

Lieut-Com Watkins Grubb

Surgn A. E. Turnbull

Midshipman J.A. Proude

Midshipman F.G. Matthews

Since the total number of officers pictured is considerably under the 62 officers lost I’m assuming future issues of the News would list the remainder if possible.

My friend Martin Gibson has supplied me with this link that lists the names of all the UK and Commonwealth naval casualties in WW1.

Otto Weddington, the commander of the U-9 sank the three armored cruisers in about an hour. For the feat he was awarded the Iron Cross, first and second class as well as other medals. In 1915 while commanding another U-Boat Weddington and his entire crew were lost when rammed by the H.M.S. Dreadnought-a battleship! https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Otto_Weddigen

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German U-Boat WW1

At the outbreak of World War One the Royal Navy still ruled the waves. The technology associated with naval vessels was advancing at a rapid pace. This can be illustrated in that the Aboukir had been completed in 1902 and put into the reserve fleet by 1912-an active service life of only ten years. It was reactivated in 1914 at the outbreak of the war but was no doubt considered a useful but second line type ship.

Germany sought to challenge Britain’s dominance of the waves by constructing it’s own High Seas Fleet. It fought one major battle at Jutland in 1916 and failed to achieve much of anything. The High Seas Fleet stayed in port bottled up by the Royal Navy as the Royal Navy blockaded Germany eventually bringing the country to the brink of starvation.

As a result of the blockade the Germans relied more and more on U-Boat warfare in an effort to starve Great Britain first even as Germany began to starve due to the Royal Navy’s blockade.

Most of the dramatic successes that the U-Boats enjoyed were in the earlier parts of the war. The allies reacted to the U-Boats by building and employing many more destroyers and other sub-hunting craft. Transports became part of convoy systems escorted by destroyers and the U-Boats suffered fearful losses of their own.

As the war went on Germany became more desperate to break the British blockade and reintroduced unrestricted submarine warfare-meaning that the U-Boats would sink neutral ships suspected of supplying Britain.

This is what brought the United States into the war in April, 1917 thus sealing Germany’s doom in the Great War.

But before that would happen there would be many Aboukir’s sunk and thousands of lives lost on both sides. The list of officers in my issue of The London Illustrated News is sadly just a sampling of the terrible cost that was the First World War.

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The Illustrated London News, Oct. 17, 1914 and CH Collett

This past summer I found what I consider an amazing find-a World War One copy of The Illustrated London News. It’s marked on the inside, Sante Fe Reading Room and somehow it made it to an obscure antique store in SW Wisconsin.

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I picked it up for the sum of $10.00.

The Illustrated London News appeared first on Saturday 14 May 1842, as the world’s first illustrated weekly news magazine.[1] Founded by Herbert Ingram, it appeared weekly until 1971, then less frequently thereafter, and ceased publication in 2003. The company continues today as Illustrated London News Ltd, a publishing, content and digital agency in London, which holds the publication and business archives of the magazine.  (Wiki-The Illustrated London News)

As described in the above paragraph the magazine can still be viewed in digital form and given that it dates back to 1842 that’s something any history buff could enjoy. Nevertheless, I obtained a hard copy in fair shape that dates back to the early days of World War One.

The magazine seems to be a cross between a magazine and a newspaper. It features numerous pictures and art work as well as good articles to support the pictures and illustrations. You certainly get a feel for the period reading through it! (The ads are fascinating and give an excellent idea of what products were popular 100 years ago.)

Virtually the entire issue is dedicated to World War One. Bt the time this issue was published Great Britain had been involved for about three months declaring war on Germany following the German violation of the Belgian border as they advanced on France.

The first article is a lengthy article divided into smaller articles titled The Great War. On the first page it mentions an aviator by the name of C. H. Collett, an officer of the Royal Marine Artillery. (Aviators were recruited from all others branches of service since no country had yet organized an Air Force as we know them today.) Finding out more about C. H. Collet became a bit of an obsession.

I ran a Google search for Flight-Lieutenant Collett. Th search turned up his picture in two places on the Web and one of them is on eBid as a reprint from a 1917 Imperial Tobacco Card and the other is on Wiki.

So, how did Flight-Lieutenant Collett get his picture on a 1917 Imperial Tobacco Card?

Collett was a bit of a celebrity before the war because he made a non-stop flight between Plymouth and Grimsby, both in the UK. Grimsby is about 350 miles from Plymouth and today its takes about 5 1\2 hours by car to make the trip. I can only wonder how long it took in an early biplane (actually an early monoplane-see below)  since they didn’t go much faster than today’s cars. I’m guessing it took about the same amount of time. Ironically, Collett performed the feat in a German airplane.

Collett gained further fame during the early days of World War One because he bombed a German Zeppelin hanger in Dusseldorf, Germany. The History Channel did an article on the raid which took place on September 21st, 1914. The article can viewed here. Collett received the Distinguished Service Order for his part in the raid.

Collett was regarded as one of the best naval airmen in those days of early aviation.

Collett’s unit was part of the terrible Gallipoli Campaign where his unit flew bombing missions and performed reconnaissance duties. By August 1915 his unit was back in Britain where sadly, Collet was killed in a flying accident. You can see what else we have of Collett’s history and record here.

A couple of pages later in the magazine there is a two page spread titled; Dead On The Field Of Honor Naval and Military Officers Who Have Been Killed on Active Service. The spread has small pictures of each officer along with their name and unit or ship. There is about 50 pictures and although limited to officers it does give a glimpse into the terrible carnage of World War One. I wonder if Collett appears in future issues of the The London Illustrated News?

On the bottom of the page it lists other officers killed and it ends with this line: The death-roll of our Army and Navy grows day-by-day, but, while we deplore the sorrow which casualties bring, the names will live for all time in the chronicle of the world’s greatest war.

Little did they know that the war to end all wars would last another four years killing millions. Little did they know that the war to end all wars would not be the last “great war” for another wold be fought twenty-five years later and that too would kill millions.