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A Sailor, his girlfriend and the Great White Fleet, c. 1910

Of the five post cards I walked away with from the antique store in Indiana I found this one the most interesting.

Navy1910frontside

First of all the artwork is fantastic. The colors are still stunning even though the card is postmarked February 23, 1910! The edging of the card is a metallic gold. My scan does not do it justice.

The card is not a colorized picture but rather a small reproduction of art and  I’m guessing that the sender of the card spent more than average on this card!

The date is interesting. It is pre-World War One and related to the American Navy. The caption, “doing his duty” is humorous but also an indication about how sailors and soldiers feel about the girl they left behind.

The 1910 date reveals that the American Navy of the period was the Great White Fleet (pre-dreadnought era).

The Great White Fleet was the popular nickname for the United States Navy battle fleet that completed a circumnavigation of the globe from 16 December 1907 to 22 February 1909 by order of U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt.

It consisted of 16 battleships divided into two squadrons, along with various escorts. Roosevelt sought to demonstrate growing American military power and blue-water navy capability. Hoping to enforce treaties and protect overseas holdings, the U.S. Congress appropriated funds to build American sea power. Beginning with just 90 small ships, over one-third of them wooden, the navy quickly grew to include new modern steel fighting vessels. The hulls of these ships were painted a stark white, giving the armada the nickname “Great White Fleet”.

Wiki Source

 

USS Connecticut-another postcard with similar artwork to my find.

USS Connecticut-another postcard with similar artwork to my find.

US Atlantic Fleet-1907

US Atlantic Fleet-1907

Pre-Dreadnought Battleship, USS Wisconsin, named for my home state. The Wisconsin and the other ships of the Great While Fleet were obsolete by the time of America’s entry into WW1 (April, 1917) such were the advancements in battleship technology. The Wisconsin was activated however and used in coast patrol duties along the Atlantic Coast.

Colorful postcard featuring Australia welcoming the Great White Fleet.

Colorful postcard featuring Australia welcoming the Great White Fleet.

The other side of the card is also fascinating. It’s addressed to Miss Eleanor Reed, 523 Madison Drive, Ann Arbor, Michigan, The message to Miss Eleanor is upside down on the card and is in German! The card was sent from Sturgis, Michigan. I could find nothing in particular Navy related to Sturgis but did find that Sturgis had a sister city in Germany ( Wiesloch, Germany).  I do know that in the later years of the 19th century and early years of the 20th century the US took in many German immigrants so it’s not so unusual to find a US postcard written in German to another German speaker.

My German is weak and the script is in cursive making it difficult to translate so I enlisted my German friend Simone G. to translate for me. Simone’s translation:

 How are you? I have been at my sister’s for three days and went back home yesterday. I am doing pretty (kind of) well. A week ago I caught a bad cold and I [am] getting well slowly. As soon as I have enough time I will write to you. Yours … Frank

Unusual today but probably common in 1910 as many American cities had a high proportion of 1st or 2nd generation German immigrants.

Unusual today but probably common in 1910 as many American cities had a high proportion of 1st or 2nd generation German immigrants.

In a message to me Simone speculates a bit as to whether or not Eleanor was Frank’s girlfriend. Simone notes that Frank uses the more formal “Sie” than the less formal “du” for the English word “you.” The use of “du” would indicate a girlfriend perhaps while “Sie” is more respectful and used with strangers, teachers or older people.

There is nothing in the message to Eleanor  that would indicate that Frank is in the Navy; yet why would he send such a romantic type card if he was not? By the same token, I speculate that Eleanor is Frank’s love interest and that perhaps Frank simply seeks to be respectful in his use of the more formal “Sie.”

Whatever the case I think the card is interesting and a glimpse into German\American culture c. 1910.

 

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Woodrow Wilson, America’s Great War President

Bruce:

A reblog from my Church, State, Faith and Culture blog.

Originally posted on Church, State, Faith and Culture:

One hundred years ago today World War One began. The President of the US in 1914 was Woodrow Wilson.

Woodrow Wilson was a committed Christian from a Presbyterian background. It was not a secret that his faith guided his politics.

Wilson’s best known for a couple of things.

First, he kept the US out of World War One for about 2 1/2 years.

Wilson was an idealist and a post-millennialist, meaning he believed that the church would usher in 1000 year reign of Christ on earth, a reign of peace. He thought of himself as an instrument toward that end. Wilson’s views coincided with the isolationist views of many Americans-Americans who wanted nothing to do with what they saw as European dynastic squabbles linked to the various empires.

Wilson probably would have succeeded in keeping the US out of the war indefinitely had it not been for two things.

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King Armored Machine Gun Car US_postcard

American AC postcard

I found this postcard in an antique store in Indiana. I’ve not seen anything like it in my limited searches. It appears to be a US manufactured King armored car.

The King Armored Car was manufactured by the Armored Motor Car Company (AMC). It was the first American armored vehicle, and was ordered by the United States Marine Corps in 1915 for testing before being used by the 1st Armored Car Squadron, which consisted of eight cars. The 1st Armored Car Squadron was the USA’s first formal armored unit. Wiki Source picture below.

King armored car

King armored car

My card is post marked post-war 1919. The writing on the back is in pencil and quite faded but it appears the card is addressed to the Ford Seed Company, Rivanna, Ohio. The sender is Louis Evans and Louis is requesting a seed catalog.

A significant portion of the back side of the card relates to the armored car:

The importance of the automobile in the present war can hardly be overestimated. At the beginning of the war, a fleet of Parisian taxicabs enabled General Joffre to get his troops mobilized at the proper point with incredible speed. Again and again the motor car saved the day, but here in the armored machine gun car, we wee the automobile in all it’s glory of war. Note the sturdy construction, solid wheels, steel shield for the man who operates the machine gun, and the small carefully shielded apertures through which the driver can watch the road and still be comparatively safe from hostile sharpshooters.

Although other nations used armored cars in combat in the First World War the Us manufactured King did not according to Wiki. The squadron was disbanded in 1921 and some of the cars sent to Latin American countries.

 

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WW2 American Army Postcards

On a trip southward through Indiana I picked up these three postcards at an antique store. All three deal with men in the US Army either right before our entry into World War 2 or during. I selected them over others because they have writing on the back and were clearly sent to friends or loved ones.

WW2 American Postcard1

This one is  post-marked September 17, 1942, about nine months after the US entered the war. The sender is Pvt. Charles Vanausdall who is part of a HQ detachment at Fort Belvoir. Fort Belvoir was a training center for Army engineers during the war and Charles identifies himself as an E.T.-engineer trainee. I found a link on Ancestry that indicated Charles’ status as a veteran (name and dates match) and burial but didn’t want to sign up for Ancestry and pursue where the grave might be.

Charles is writing to a friend named Arlie Harmon in Lebanon, Indiana. He says, “They are putting us through the paces fast, After I take four weeks of training I will probably take some schooling for some special work that I will be assigned to.”

My understanding of Army Engineers during WW2 is that they were of two types. The first types were “combat engineers” that accompanied the infantry and armor to help with the nasty work of over coming obstacles and fixed defenses. My wife’s uncle was a combat engineer and he was killed outside the Siegfried Line in September, 1944.

The other type of engineer was more the builder than the destroyer and they would be the ones to erect bridges, build air fields, put down roads and other massive projects that would keep the Army on the move.

This is pure speculation on my part but given the date and the location of the fort it is possible that Charles was being trained for Operation Torch, the Allied invasion of North Africa in November of 1942.

WW2 American Postcard2

The second card is  interesting and colorfully shows  the training of US Infantry. The card is post-marked pre-war, April 3rd, 1941-a time when the US was clearly gearing up for the war in Europe that had been raging since September, 1939. The soldiers on the card could pass for the WW1 variety with the old style steel helmets, gas masks, Springfield Rifles and campaign hats.

The sender in this case appears to be a man named Jan and he’s writing to a Mrs. Mae Hawes of Barton City, Michigan. He addresses Mae as “Dear Friend” and since she is married it is likely that Mae is indeed just a friend.

Jan writes, “Arrived at Camp Grant Illinois this morning but don’t expect to stay long. Will maybe have time to write next time.”

I’m speculating that Jan was drafted and sent to Camp Grant as a way station before going somewhere else for training. According to Wiki, Camp Grant was an induction center but many men did undergo basic training there. Wiki further notes that about 100,000 men were trained as medics at the camp. The camp was also used for the detention of 2,500 POWs. The card is simply signed Jan with no last name on the card.

WW2 American Postcard3There were a number of this type of card at the antique store but I selected this one because it was filled out and had writing on the back. This type of card was meant to save the soldier some time. The soldier simply checked off small talk boxes and wrote something more personal on the back. It was a shorthand letter that fit on a post card.

The date is 2-20-43 and the place it was sent from appears to be Compton(?) Mississippi. The recipient is “Tory Shielda” who lives in Tampa, Florida.  The sender is Sgt. Elbert E. Jones who is in the 116th Field Artillery. Today the 116th Field Artillery is part of the Florida National Guard so one can assume that Elbert was part of that organization when it was called up for Federal service during the war.

Elbert indicates on the face of the card that he feels swell, is relaxing, thinking of Tory, that he needs sleep and that he has the pet peeve that there are no women around! He asks for a long letter from Tory, sends his regards to the folks and says he is “hers” some of the time and always. Tory is clearly Elbert’s love interest.

On the back he writes, “a line to say I’m mad at you and haven’t had a letter or card for a long time. Hope this finds you enjoying the best of all and write soon to Jonesy.

One of the biggest fears a soldier had (has) was to receive a “Dear John” letter. A “Dr. John” letter was a breaking off of the relationship and the realization to the soldier that his girl was not waiting for him to come home.

The first sign that a soldier might receive the “Dr. John” letter was the absence of communication from his sweet heart for a long period of time. I suspect Elbert is worried that Tory has found another and he is looking for reassurance that is not the case.

During my short time in the Army (1971-72) soldiers were still getting “Dear Johns.” We actually sang a song about it indirectly. As I recall, the girls we left behind were cavorting with a fictional character by the name of “Jodie” another male who did not get drafted or enlist. As the song went, when the soldier got home, he’d pay a visit to “Jodie” and bust his head. Crude to be sure but it reflected the anguish of getting a “Dr. John” from the girl who promised to wait for you.

I often wonder how these personal type correspondence end up at rummage sales or antique stores.The speak of relationships and of war and one wonders what happened to the sender and the receiver. Perhaps a relative will one day run a search for their long-lost relative and find the link to my blog. I’d be happy to reunite them with their loved one with the card.

 

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The Oeffag Albatros D III

I’ve been a bit busy as of late and have not posted on this blog for a while. I hope to back soon but in the meantime I hope my readers will enjoy this guest blog from my friend Paul, a bit of an authority on WW1 airplanes. Enjoy!

 

An often overlooked theater in WWI was the Austro-Italian front. Often miss-identified as a German Albatros D III is this Austro-Hungarian variant, the Oeffag (Albatros) D III. This replica was built from the ground up and is photo chronicled at: http://s306.photobucket.com/user/kolomay/library/?sort=3&page=1

Oeffag (Albatros) D III.

Oeffag (Albatros) D III.

 

 

Albatross D III

Albatross D III

The following press release is taken from the Aerodrome forum, Fight in the Skies Society:

Schleißheim (DE) 11th April 2012, Koloman Mayrhofer and Eberhard Fritsch announced that yesterday in the late morning, after a 94-years-long break, a WWI designed Albatross fighter has flown again.

On the Schleißheim aerodrome (Munchen, DE) the OEFFAG Albatross D.III s/n 253.24 replica produced by the two friends, started the test flight operations.

“We’re very happy we reached our goal of making the plane flying” says Koloman Mayrhofer “especially because the replica is historically accurate and it’s fitted with and original six in line cylinders Austro Daimler engine, produced in 1917!”
“We would like to thank all the people involved in the project” continued Mayrhofer “without their passion and devotion, this 20-years-long journey wouldn´t have reached its natural end”.

The text pilot Roger Louis “Tex” Texier, after all the pre-flight inspection controls were done by his C.S. Francis DePenne, performed two flights over the day and afterward declared: “together with Mayrhofer we scheduled to use the first flights just to gain confidence with the aircraft characteristics, but” continued the well experienced test pilot “already on the second flight I felt so connected to the aircraft that I couldn’t help by doing some acrobatics manoeuvres”. These manoeuvres included a series of touch-and-go, a stall, some close turnings and a Immelmann, that aroused the enthusiasm of the crowd on the ground.

The pilot also gave his first impressions: “the Albatross it’s really different from all the other WWI aircrafts I was able to flight: the tail surfaces are extremely sensible unlike the ailerons; the powerful engine grant good acceleration and climbing characteristics…. A real race horse!”.

As the flight program developed, despite bad weather conditions, it was possible to achieve a total of nearly 3 hours of flight by the end of the week.

The flight test activities of the aircraft are carried under the experimental certification of the LBA (German NAA) supervision, and are scheduled to last until 22nd of July.

The aircraft, serial number 253.24, is shown above as it appeared in 1918. A personal aircraft of Oblt. Franz Rudorfer (11 v.), also used by Zgsf.Eugen Bonsch and Oblt.Benno Fiala-3rd highest scoring Austo-Hungarian ace with 28 victories.

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When a man is down the enmity ends.

Many of the pictures in Liberty’s Victorious Conflict seek to show a gentler side of the great carnage that was WW1. This little grouping features primarily the wounded with Americans recovering in England and Germans being treated by the British or Canadians.

"When a man is down" Then Enmity Ends.

The picture above and below both report to show Americans recovering in England. Not much to say about either other than perhaps the authors of the book wanted to communicate the growing bond between the two nations that had developed during WW1.

The caption notes that the hospital was donated by an Englishwoman.

The caption notes that the hospital was donated by an Englishwoman.

The fellow on the far left of the picture looks much worse than the other smiling patients being cared for by a nun. I wonder why they dragged all the beds outside to take the shot?

The picture was damaged by a kid with a crayon but it's still an interesting picture of enemies being treated for their wounds.

The picture was damaged by a kid with a crayon but it’s still an interesting picture of enemies being treated for their wounds.

It’s my understanding that when possible the doctors and medical orderlies of both sides treated the wounded without discrimination-at least on the western front.

Another picture of German wounded being treated and a British nurse killed in an air raid.

I grouped the above two pictures to show the difference in labeling. The picture on the left calls the German a “Fritzie” a nickname like “Jerry” rather than a pejorative. The British on the other hand were usually called “Tommies” by the Germans.

The picture on the right however is designed to get an emotional response-a British nurse killed by a “hun” in an air raid. The propaganda machine in Britain and the US consistently referred to the Germans as Huns comparing them to medieval Mongols who terrorized Europe. I believe it was first used when the Germans invaded neutral Belgium a fact that drew Britain into the war and therefore a miscalculation on Germany’s part.

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Morgenrot_Morning Glow

The 26th Wisconsin Infantry Regiment was a “German” Regiment raised for the Union during the American Civil War. It was nicknamed “The Sigel Regiment” after Franz Sigel himself a German immigrant from Baden. Twelve regiments of Germans were raised in 1862 from areas in the north with heavy German immigrant populations.

The 26th Wisconsin was raised primarily in the Milwaukee area and eventually was posted to the Army of the Potomac’s 11th Corps, a Corps that consisted of many “German” regiments.

xi-corps-holds-cemetery-hill

The position of the "German" Corps at Gettysburg.

The position of the “German” Corps at Gettysburg.

Prior to the Battle of Gettysburg General Schurz (commanding the Division the 26th WI was part of) ordered the German band of the 45th New York to serenade a priest and some nuns at a nearby academy. A favorite song of the German soldiers was “Morgenrot” or “Morning Glow”  and many in Schurz’s Division heard the song that evening.

Here are the words in German followed by a translation from James S. Pula’s The Sigel Regiment.

Leuchtest mir zum fruhen Tod?

Are you calling me to an early death?

Bald wird die Trompete blasen, Dann muss ich mein Leben lassen, Ich und mancher Kamerad!

Soon the trumpets will blow then I must give up my life mine and many comrades!

Kaum gedacht, War der Lust ein End gemacht. Gestern noch auf stolzen Rossen,

Suddenly, All joy came to an end. Yesterday, still proudly on horseback, Today shot through my breast,

Morgen is das kuhle Grab!

Tomorrow in a cold grave.

Ach, wie bald

Oh, too soon,

Schwindet Schonheit und Gestalt

The beauty and vision of clouds,

Tust du stolz mit deinen Wangen, Die wie Milch und Purpur prangen? Ach, die Rosen welken all!

Proudly displyed like milk and blood, fade away, Alas, even a rose wilts.

Darum still

Therefore

Fug’ Ich mich, wie Gott es will. Nun, so will ich wacker streiten,

Humbly I obey God’s will. And if death should come to me

Und sollt’ ich den Tod erleiden, Stirbt ein braver Reitersmann.

I will have died A brave Calvalryman.

The song proved prophetic as the 26th lost 46 killed, 134 wounded and 37 missing at Gettysburg out of 516 engaged.

26th Wisconsin Monument at Gettysburg. http://www.gettysburg.stonesentinels.com/WI/26WI.php

26th Wisconsin Monument at Gettysburg.
http://www.gettysburg.stonesentinels.com/WI/26WI.php

The 11th Corps was unfairly maligned by the press, especially the eastern press. The Germans regiments were called “Dutchmen” and they were accused of running away and abandoning their positions at Chancellorsville and Gettysburg.

The truth of the matter is the 11th Corp was twice faced by over whelming odds as the Confederates achieved local numerical superiority in  both battles. The division the 26th WI was in gave ground grudgingly on both occasions and only retreated when ordered to do so.

The accusations had more to do with immigrant prejudice than anything else.

For more: The “2nd” German 26th Wisconsin blog post by me.

For still more: The German XI Corps at Gettysburg by Patrick Young (blogger).

For still more yet: German Sons in the American Civil War. This is an interesting (incomplete) website that documents the vast number of Union Regiments in the Civil War that had a heavy proportion of German immigrants. He lists about 100 including 10 from Wisconsin.

 

 

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